**Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564-8 January 1642)**

He is also known as Galileo, was born in Pisa, Italy. In the words of Stephen Hawking, “Galileo, perhaps more than any other single person, was responsible for the birth of modern science.” He was a physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher credited with using the method of observation and experiment with scientific rigour and therefore called “the Father of Modern Science”. Galileo has also been called the “father of modern Observational astronomy”, the “father of modern physics”, and the “father of science”. He was the first to study the motion of uniformly accelerated objects, which is now taught in all high school and introductory College Physics Courses. His Contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic Confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots.

Galileo publicly supported the Sun-centred universe suggested by Copernicus and was tried by the Inquisition, found “vehemently suspect of heresy”, forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest.

# Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727)

He was born in the County! Lincolnshire, England. He Was a physicist, mathematician, Astronomer natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, and is considered to be one of the most influential people in human history.His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy”; usually called the Principia) lays the groundwork for most of the classical mechanics.In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion and showed that the motions of objects on earth and of Celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws.

Newton also made important Contributions in Optics: he built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound.In mathematics, he shares the credit With Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. He demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed Newton’s method for approximating the roots of a function, and Contributed to the study of power series**.**

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