# MEG-04 Solved Assignment 2021-2022

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# MEG-04 Solved Assignment 2021-2022

 Title Name MEG-04 English Solved Assignment 2021-22 Subject Name Aspects Of Language No.of Pages in Solution 21 Course MA(English) MEG Language ENGLISH Semester 2021-2022 Course: MA(English) MEG Session 2021-22 Submission Date 31st March 2022(if enrolled in the July 2021 Session)

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# MEG-04 Solved Assignment 2021-2022

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# MEG-04 Solved Assignment 2021-2022

Submission: 31st March 2022(if enrolled in the July 2021 Session)

## Aspects Of Languages

1. Write short notes on the following:

i  Langue and parole

ii  Types of Negation and its interaction with Scope

iii  Code mixing vs code switching

iv  Generative grammar

Langue and parole

Langue and parole are more than just ‘language and speech’ (although this is a useful quick way of remembering them).

Langue

The entire system of language that precedes and supports speech is known as la langue. The smallest linguistic unit is the sign.We learn a language’s grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation when we study it. It’s all a part of the language.In the sense that it has a vast number of elements, language is a system in which meaning is formed via the arrangement of these elements and the subsequent interactions between these elements.

Parole

Parole refers to the actual utterances of the language. It is a physical expression of the language. It’s not the system itself that’s the problem; it’s how people use it.

## Discussion

Saussure distinguishes between the language and how it is used by establishing Langue and Parole, allowing these two distinct entities to be examined separately.Saussure, as a structuralist, was more interested in the language than the language itself. It was the system itself that was of interest, rather than the specific examples of its application that were of interest.It is argued by Marxist Mikhail Bakhtin (1929) that dividing language and speech creates a chasm between people and society at the point of production. For him, language is understood as it relates the speaker/writer to the listener/reader, and this is called “dialogic” theory. Words may be negotiated, contested, and fought over. Language is heavily influenced by the social environment in which it is used.At the moment of parole, new meaning can be created by altering the speaker’s understanding of language or by intentionally distorting it.

ii Types of Negation and its interaction with Scope

Two kinds of negation in English

We made the assumption that the term “negation” can be applied to all English negative phrases. Morphological prefixes like un, in/im, and dis are used in English to convey the opposing meanings of individual words: in such a scenario, strictly speaking, it is not the sentential meaning as a whole that has been negated but rather the meaning of the individual word. Contrast this with terms like no and earlier, which behave in a different way. Take note of the changes in meaning between the members of these sentential pairs:

1. Raman is not very happy with the situation.
2. Raman is very unhappy with the situation. (1)
3. Hina expressed no pleasure at the prospect.
4. Hina expressed displeasure at the prospect. (2)

To say that Raman is not overjoyed with the scenario is a gentler statement than to say that he is overjoyed; and Hina not expressing any pleasure at the prospect is not the same as Hina voicing her disapproval with the potential. Thus, morphological and syntactic denial have distinct meanings. Additionally, it appears reasonable to investigate for scope phenomena only in the situation of syntactic negation, rather than morphological negation, because syntactic negation has the effect of rejecting the meaning of the positive phrase in its whole.

The scope of negation

We’ll take a closer look at how negation and other scope-bearing components like quantifiers interact with scope. An amateurs’ archery meet may look like this:

1. Many arrows did not hit the target.
2. Not many arrows hit the target. (3)

The sentence (3a) is ambiguous between the two readings (4a) and (4b) below, ‘ while the unambiguous sentence (3b) has only the reading (4b), not (4a):

1. For many arrows A, it was not the case that A hit the target.
2. It was not the case that, for many arrows A, A hit the target. (4)

On the reading (4a), the quantifier many has wider scope than the negation not , whereas on the reading (4b), not has wider scope than many. Note that the sentence (3a) can be extended in the following way, whereas the sentence (3b) cannot be so extended without a resulting contradiction:

1. Many arrows didn’t hit the target (but many did hit the target).
2. Not many arrows hit the target (but many did hit the target). (5)

Furthermore, there is a class of words and phrases that occur only within the scope of negation, called negative polarity items. Consider the contrast among the following sets of sentences:

1. Sita knows something.
2. Sita does not know anything. (6)
3. Sita knows anything.
4. I like spinach very much.
5. I don’t like spinach wall. (7)
6. I like spinach mall.
7. Mr. X drinks &lot.
8. Mr. X does& drink much. (8)
9. Mr X drinks much.

Note that, in the sentence (6b), the word anything replaces something when the negative element -n’t occurs with the verb — thus, it does not have the same meaning in (6b) as in (6c), which is not very natural in English (unless spoken with expressive stress on anything — “Talk about anything and Sita knows it already”). This is because anything in (6b) is a negative polarity item, the counterpart of something in the affirmative sentence (6a). In the set of sentences (7a-c), we find that the phrase at all can only occur with the negative element as in (7b). In the set of sentences (8a-c), we notice that much occurs as the negative polarity counterpart of a lot, and that it cannot occur in a simple affirmative sentence like (8c). Thus, negation exerts an influence on the distribution of items within its scope, and especially selects negative polarity items.

iii Code mixing vs code switching

Code Switching

Language switching is the employment of many languages or dialects in a dialogue. When a bilingual speaker has trouble speaking with someone from a different linguistic background, they may switch between languages to ensure that they are understood.Code switching allows you to speak in two or more languages simultaneously. Bokamba defines it as the mingling of words and sentences from two grammatical systems inside a single speech occurrence.Code-switching is controversial. One of the most important strategies in sociolinguistics is studying social causes for switching (solidarity). Also, code-switching may reflect how frequently a person employs a phrase from one language or the other, and therefore a term from one language may come to mind more quickly than the comparable expression in another. Code-switching occurs between or within sentences.

Code Mixing

Code-mixing and code-switching have mutually reinforcing effects. It’s called double linguistic fluency when the speaker uses both languages simultaneously or switches between them so often that they switch tongues within one phrase. Code mixing can occur at any level of grammar or lexicon, whether it phonological, morphological, structural, or any combination thereof.We couldn’t avoid first language influencing second language. Language mixing creates new languages. Their native language is still spoken by many in this society, although it is impacted by other languages.Code-mixing is a typical approach of changing one’s language. Language learners often use it to express themselves. Codified sentences are uttered in fragments of one language while the speaker is basically speaking in another. Words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs can all be represented as fragments of another language.

iv Generative grammar

A “generative grammar” is a collection of formal rules for a language. Generative grammar is a formal instrument that can “generate” any grammatical statement. The term “generative grammar” refers to formal devices or procedures that may be used to determine the correctness of a sentence.A limited set of rules in a generic language often yields limitless strings. These features are critical for a model of real language since human brains have limited capacity yet can create and comprehend a huge diversity of words. Some linguists say that the number of grammatical sentences in any natural language is infinite.Noam Chomsky created the Chomsky hierarchy in the 1950s. An ascending chart of formal grammar shows increasing expressive power. Regular languages, according to Chomsky, are inadequate as models for human language since all human languages enable string embedding within strings (type 3 grammar).This diagram shows how a phrase is produced in a context-free language. Derivation trees are a popular topic among generative grammar linguists. They think each phrase has subordinate and superordinate branches connected by nodes.

# MEG-04 Assignment Question Paper

Answer all questions. All questions carry equal marks.
1. Write short notes on the following:
i Langue and parole
ii Types of Negation and its interaction with Scope
iii Code mixing vs code switching
iv Generative grammar
2. Languages enrich and evolve through borrowings. Discuss the various borrowings in English language by giving examples.
3. How is inflectional morphology different from derivational morphology? Discuss by giving examples.
4. Discuss case, thematic roles and theta theory by citing relevant examples?
5. Fill in the blank spaces in the following sentences:
1. A consonant during the articulation of which the vocal cords vibrate is called a ________________ consonant.
2. A consonant during the articulation of which there is no velic opening or the oral cavity is closed then it is called a ____________________ consonant.
3. The difference between a plosive and an affricate is that during the articulation of plosives the release of air is __________________ and during the articulation of affricates the release is __________________.
4. Allophones are __________________of the same __________________.
5. Vowels are more _________________ than consonants. There is little or no __________________in the production of vowels.
6. ________________ is a sound which is present in your mother tongue but not in English. (use IPA to indicate the sound)
7. __________ is a voiceless bilabial plosive and ___________ is a voiced alveolar lateral phoneme in English. (use IPA to indicate the phoneme)
8. A speech sound which patterns like a consonant but is phonetically a brief vowel such as /w/ in win is called a _____________.
9. Fricatives are produced by a ________________ in the vocal tract so as to ______________.
10. The _______________ vowels serve as points of reference for identifying real vowels in actual languages.

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