MEG-09 Solved Assignment 2021-2022 

Title Name

MEG-09 English Solved Assignment 2021-22

Subject Name

Australian Literature

No.of Pages in Solution



MA(English) MEG




2021-2022 Course: MA(English) MEG



Submission Date

31st March 2022(if enrolled in the July 2021 Session) and  30th Sept 2022 (if enrolled in the January 2022 session)


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MEG-09 Solved Assignment 2021-2022


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MEG-09 Solved Assignment 2021-2022

Submission: 31st March 2022(if enrolled in the July 2021 Session) and 30th Sept, 2022 (if enrolled in the January 2022 session).

Australian Literature

1. What were the various traditions that formed the beginnings of Australian Literature? Illustrate with examples


Words like “oral literature” illustrate the assumptions associated to “Literature” in academic and cultural contexts. The concentration on the printed word in literary studies has often resulted in this element being disregarded in the evolution of written tales in most civilizations. Lit programmes, especially theatre and poetry, have felt the same. Performance and spoken word suffer when the attention is primarily on the written word.In certain circumstances, literature is seen as superior to other forms of popular culture. Due to its oral nature, folkloric or so-called popular culture-based genres including Aboriginal song cycles, colonial ballads, and bush songs are often misunderstood. Like contemporary cultural thought has questioned the establishment of boundaries like “high” and “poor” culture. It has also generated debates regarding the relative importance of written and spoken words. Cultural studies programmes must now include as many dimensions of cultural production as possible to provide a more complete picture of human expression.

Australian literature places a high value on oral forms.It would be colonial to overlook the presence of song cycles passed down from generation to generation since they do not suit standard literary paradigms. Those early literary forms and cultural knowledge of the island-continent that combined important effects of jail ballads and bush songs would be lost if not considered. Just as the concept of “English literature” has evolved to include works from all around the world, so too must the meaning of “literature.”


Finding a starting point requires first defining what a ‘beginning’ is. According to Adam Shoemaker, tracing the origins of Aboriginal writing is difficult because we have to decide whether to focus on poetry, drama, and verse or “consider Black Australian writings as any meaningful inscriptions: diaries, letters, song lyrics, transcribed oral narratives, message” in any medium. Outsiders have imposed the most on Aboriginal culture and literature.

The Dreaming was a legendary age that was widely invoked in Indigenous Australian oral narratives. The Dreaming is an English term used to represent what is presented in several Aboriginal cultural frameworks using varied words with somewhat varying meanings. It is a compilation of ancient creation tales and the roots of Aboriginal cultural practises, beliefs, and values prior to British colonisation. The Dreaming’s rituals are as magical and lovely as any poetry. Oral traditions, like other indigenous ways of expression, had a role in the Aboriginal social network. It was created by individuals who lived and travelled through the area, naming it and writing new songs and stories about it. Oral tradition was also used to communicate group wisdom.

Between the 1930s and 1950s, Jindyworobak was influenced by indigenous customs. The Adelaide-based organisation named a movement led by Rex Ingamells that attempted to break away from European colonial traditions by identifying with Australian Aboriginal ones as ‘Jindyworobak’. The movement emphasised “distinctive Australian quality in literature” as proof of “Jindyworobak” and other markers of Aboriginality (Goodwin, 134). “We must learn new skills from Aboriginal art and song,” Ingamells stated. “From Aboriginal tales, we must achieve a pure picture of existence.” (134) This movement aimed to develop an Australian legacy based on Aboriginal land and culture. The colonial legacy of literature was hoped to be removed through romanticising Aboriginal culture and language. The usage of Aboriginal symbols and language by white colonial inhabitants has been criticised. The urban core and white colonists, critics believe, were thus redefined. Shoemaker in Black Words White Page suggests that their employment of Black Australian language external trappings reflected a souvenir mindset (57).


Oral traditions evolved out of the penal system and pastoral outposts in the bush during early colonialism. Upon release, ex-convicts were typically urged to live off the land or work as migrant labourers linked to local railway stations. These colonial oral traditions shaped popular culture in Australia’s colonies. Their depictions of people and places inspired more formally recognised ‘literary’ traditions, representing what was regarded “distinctly Australian” in literature and presented as national culture.

Convict Traditions

The prisoner community created a vibrant oral literature to communicate their views on the penitentiary system and Australia. The genre evolved from the lower sections of British society and those of Irish origin who developed folk songs and stories in the colonial metropolis. Edgar Walters’ ‘Ballads and Popular Verse’ traces them back to broadside ballads of the city (293-4).These songs, like the literary and folklore traditions around a person like Robin Hood, present its primary protagonist in a cultural light.

The Bush Tradition

The Australian bush brotherhood was a loose migratory society that thrived in the 1980s and 1990s outback boom. It also has a pre-golden heritage. According to Hugh Anderson, almost every cattle range had “… someone who could crank out bush jingle of a sort.” Sadly, many of these excellent verses have been lost (34). Anderson also references Edward Sorenson, a former bushman who wrote often for the Bulletin and had a varied bush career. Because he has no one to talk to and little to read, the lonely guy either yams alone or takes up writing, according to Sorenson. Se mix the two “” Anderson (pp.35-36) claims that early colonial ballads and bush songs may have been anti-establishment. As social conditions altered in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the establishment’s notion of cultural identity evolved as well. Their lyric and prose work was influenced by the literary traditions of Alan Lindsay Gordan, Banjo Paterson, and Henry Lawson. The Bulletin school of authors originated in the 1880s and saw the bush and its cultural output as great sources for forming an Australian literary identity.

Oral traditions of Australia’s aboriginal and early colonial peoples provide a wealth of information. The two streams of oral traditions have been employed to convey an Australian identity at various eras and in varied circumstances.

MEG-09 Assignment Question Paper

Attempt any five of the following:
1. What were the various traditions that formed the beginnings of Australian Literature? Illustrate with examples.
2. What were the main themes of nineteenth century Australian poetry? Substantiate from the poems you have read.
3. Discuss ‘The Drover’s Wife’ from a woman’s perspective.
4. What do you understand by the term ‘Jindyworobak’? How did the movement affect Australian Literature?
5. How does Voss deal with issues related to the land?
6. Discuss multiculturalism in Australia in the context of contemporary Australian poetry.
7. How would you describe the narrative style of Malouf in Remembering Babylon? Illustrate.
8. Discuss the dramatic technique in The Removalists. 
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MEG-09 Solved Assignment 2021-2022

MEG-09 Solved Assignment 2021-2022


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